Learning to fly, and Jeppesen’s map data on Garmin is wrong.

It’s been a while since I’ve posted, I know.

But I have a good excuse. I’ve been learning to fly.

Flying is the coolest thing I’ve done in a long time. And in the past six months I’ve gone from my check ride to being just a few weeks away from my check ride. My last flight was my long cross country to Bakersfield and to San Luis Obispo from Whiteman Airport. And the view! There is nothing cooler than seeing Avila Bay from the front windscreen of an airplane under your control.

Now to justify spending all this money learning to fly (it ain’t cheap!) I’ve been spending some time building aviation-related software products. My first product was an E6B calculator which also includes methods for calculating maneuvering speed (that changes as the weight of your plane changes, and knowing it is vital when you hit turbulence).

My second product will be an EFB, a program which helps show you where you are on a map displaying airspace data, and also allows you to create a flight plan and file a flight plan with the FAA.

And it is building the mapping engine for Android (my first targeted platform), where my current story starts.

Building a map and testing.

In order to make rendering on Android quick, I’ve built a slippy map engine that uses OpenGL. There are several advantages to this; the biggest being if you scroll the map around you don’t have to redraw the entire screen. Instead, a few OpenGL translate calls or rotate calls–and you’re done. Some additional code to detect if you need to rebuild your tiles, and you can render the tiles in the background in a separate thread, and replace the tiles in the OpenGL instance once they’re done–this allows you to scroll around in real time even though it may take a second or so to render all the complex geometry.

And in testing my slippy map code, I noticed something.

My source of data for the shape of the airspace around Burbank, Van Nuys and Whiteman is the FAA FADDS (Federal Aeronautical Data Distribution System) database, updated every 56 days. I have the latest data set for this current cycle, and I’ve rendered it using my OpenGL slippy map engine in the following screen snapshot:

You can ignore the numbers; that’s just for debugging purposes. The airspace being hilited is the airspace at my altitude (currently set to 0); dim lines show airspace at a different flight level.

And I noticed something–interesting–when comparing the map with my Garmin Aera 796 with the Jeppesen America Navigation Data set:

There are a few differences.

Okay, let’s see what the printed VFR map shows for the same area:

I’ve taken the liberty to rotate the map to around the same orientation as the other maps.

And–there are errors.

Now the difference between the FADDS data set and the printed map is trivial: there is this extra crescent area that on the printed map belongs to Van Nuys:

The errors with the Jeppesen data set, however, are worse:

On this image I’ve superimposed the image of the terminal air chart for Van Nuys, Burbank and Whiteman on top of the Garmin’s screen. It may be hard to see exactly what’s going on, but if you look carefully you see three errors.

The first error is the west side of Van Nuys’ airspace it has been straightened out into a north-south line. On the chart, Van Nuys’ airspace curves to match Burbank’s class C airspace on the west.

The second error is the northern edge of Burbank’s C airspace over Whiteman. Whiteman’s class D airspace is entirely underneath Burbank’s class C airspace–but the border has been turned into a straight line on the Garmin.

The third error is a tiny little edge of airspace that shows Van Nuys and Whiteman’s class D airspaces overlapping. On the printed map, this little wedge belongs to Whiteman.

They say a handheld GPS device should only be used for “situational awareness” and not for navigation.

Well, one reason is simple: the airspace maps you’re looking at on the hand-held may be wrong.

I’ve also noticed similar errors around Oakland’s Class C airspace. Large chunks of the airspace have been turned from nice curving lines (showing a radius from a fixed point) into roughly shaped polygons.

Now my guess is this: the raw FADDS data from the FAA is similar to most mapping data: rather than specifying round curves, the georeferenced data is specified as a polygon with a very large number of nodes; some of the airspace curves are specified with several hundred points.

And somewhere during the conversion process, the number of points are being reduced in order to fit a compact file size, and so it renders quickly: if the length of one edge of the rendered polygon is less than a couple of pixels long, there is no point keeping the nodes of that line; you can approximate the polygon with one with fewer edges with less than a single display pixel of error.

But somewhere along the path, too many polygon edges are being removed–turning what should be a curved line into a straight edge.

I don’t know if this is because there is a limit to the number of polygon lines permitted in the file format being used for export and import, or if this is because approximation code is going haywire.

But curved lines are being turned straight–which implies if you are skirting someone’s airspace, and relying on your hand-held Garmin–you could very well be intruding into someone’s airspace and not even know it.

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