Elaborating on that bug from yesterday.

The code which caused me problems which I traced to a rather popular third-party networking library–a networking library that was (in my opinion) rendered obsolete with the introduction of Grand Central Dispatch and NSURLConnection’s sendSynchronousRequest:returningResponse:error: method–which, by the way, is two generations deprecated from today’s NSURLSession class–was a retain cycle that the developer of that library choose to ignore rather than fix in the most obvious way.

The offending code was something like this:

self.callbackBlock = ^{
    [self doSomething];

In order to understand why this is a problem we need to look into how Objective C blocks work.

Generally blocks are created on the stack. In order to allow a block (essentially a form of lambda expression for Objective C) to exist beyond the current execution scope, you must make a copy of the block. In creating a copy we create an Objective-C object in memory which must strongly retain any values outside the scope of the block for use inside the scope.

That is, at the end of the assignment to callbackBlock we get in memory something like this:

The retain cycle should be obvious here:

Basically the block holds a pointer to self, and self holds a point to the block. If we then free self, the reference count from the reference holding self is decremented by 1, but the self object and the block object–because they hold references to each other–are never freed:

Memory is leaked–and if self is something complex (like a UIViewController), a lot of memory is leaked.

Oh, but I break the retain cycle in my code by expressly deleting the reference to my block when I’m done with it!

Yeah, because your code is bug free. (Sheesh)

Look, “I deal with it in code so it’s no big deal” is a fucking excuse, not a reason.

And it’s an excuse that is dependent on a misunderstanding of the nature of ARC and the retain process. So if you say “but I break the retain cycle in code”, you are a fucking idiot. Well, not a complete fucking idiot–just smart enough to shoot yourself in the foot.

It’s simple, really. The assumption behind ARC is that all allocations are in a tree-like structure of memory references. Things hold other things in a tree-like hierarchy: your UIViewController holds the root view it manages. The root view holds the other views in the hierarchy. The NSDocument object holds the root of the data structures representing your document. And so forth.

By holding references in a strict tree-like structure, it is clear what objects need to be freed when the retain count for a particular object hits zero: everything below it needs to be released. When a view goes away the children views also need to go away. When a block goes away the objects held by that block can be released.

Now of course sometimes we need back references up the tree. And those back references should be handled with weak references; references which do not increment the reference count, but are intelligent enough to be set to nil if the contents are deallocated. (I imagine a linked list of weak references associated with each object, though I’m not entirely sure how weak references are handled.)

This way we don’t get retain cycles.

So what do you do instead of writing

#pragma clang diagnostic ignored "-Warc-retain-cycles"

above your block where the compiler is complaining about a retain cycle?

Simple. Don’t break the cycle in code; that’s just an invitation to a memory leak, and depending on how you try to break the cycle, the cycle may never be broken. (I’m looking at you, AFNetworking.) Break the cycle using a weak reference.

In the example above, this means writing:

__weak MyObject *this = self;
self.callbackBlock = ^{
    [this doSomething];

When we create a weak reference cycle what we wind up constructing in memory is this:

That is, while self holds the block, the block holds a weak reference to self. This breaks the retain cycle by preserving the strict tree-like ordering to the hierarchy.

Then, as we free the reference to self:

And as the retain cycle reaches zero in self, it gets freed:

and then the block goes away itself.

So what happens if we have a separate reference to the block?

Well, again, notice the weak reference to self in block, which gets zeroed out.

So if you ever want to be extra cautious you could write:

__weak MyObject *this = self;
self.callbackBlock = ^{
    if (this) [this doSomething];

But remember a method invocation on a nil reference is not illegal in Objective C; it simply invokes a nil method which returns nil. So the

if (this)...

is not strictly necessary.

Today’s tl;dr: always break retain cycles when writing block code.

Never use “-Warc-retain-cycles”–even if you think you know what you’re doing. Because the very fact that you’re contemplating breaking a retain cycle in code clearly demonstrates you do not know what you’re doing.

Addendum: One thing I’ve heard developers say is that sometimes you have to break the rules in exceptional cases.

Sure. I’ll buy that. I’ve even done that.

However, your lack of understanding is not an exceptional case. It’s just stupidity.

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